Oil Refinery Plant
For refining of edible oil, there are three basic processes in the refinery as Follows:
First process is neutralizing the oil is neutralized to remove Free Fatty acids (FFA) by a addition of caustic soda.
Then oil is heated up to about 6Oc by thermic fluid coils or close loop steam circulation and oil is stirred by stirrer.
Then soap stock is Formed due to chemical reaction of acid with alkali. The Formed soap is allowed to settle at the
bottom oFthe neutralizer From where it is taken out into soap pan otherwise it send to centrifuge separator for
splitting it instantly then the process is followed by refining and washing.
Second process is the bleaching process, here neutralized oil is drawn into the second vessel called bleacher where
color of oil is removed by bleaching process with aid of chemicals such as carbon black and bleaching earth. Oil is
generally is heated up to 11Oc by thermic fluid coils or by close loop steam circulation. Stirring is also continued. And this process i.e BLEACHING process is done under vacuum. Bleaching oil then goes to the pressure leaf filter where bleaching earth and chemicals are separated.
After De-gumming, Neutralization, water washing, vacuum drying and bleaching the De-waxing is done. De-waxing
oil like sunflower, corn and rice bran contain waxes (which are esters of long chain fatty acid and alcohol) in the oil. These waxes impart haziness to the oil at lower temperature. To remove this haziness, the oil is subjected to the de-waxing process. In this process oil is cooled to de-waxing temperature and proper retention time is provided in the crystallizer to form crystals. Filtration ofthe oil removes the waxes.
Fourth process is the Deodorizing here clean bleached oil is then drawn to de-odourizer where oil is heated above
110 c through thermic fluid coils or by steam and then live steam is given to the oil From the bottom steam
nozzles and temperature oFoil is raised up to 200 to 22Oc through thermic fluid coils. Entire process is done under
high vacuum. Thus smell is removed from the oil in the de-odouriser. Then it goes to cooler where water circulating
coils take away heat and oil is cooled. Again it goes to second polishing filter where completely refined and
transparent golden yellow color oil is obtained.
Miscella Refining Process